Lesson 3

Four New Characters: ᯔ, ᯒ, ᯑ, ᯐ

In this lesson we will learn four new characters, namely /ma/, /ra/, /da/, and /ja/.

The characters ᯔ and ᯕ

The letters /ma/ is written in three strokes. First the horizontal line on the upper left, then the long curved line, and finally the descending line on the lower right: ᯔ. The shape ᯔ can be found in all areas except in Simalungun where the shape is ᯕ – even though it looks different, it is essentially the same letter but. with lines that are separate from each other as it is so typical for the Simalungun script.

The characters ᯒ and ᯓ

The character /ra/ is also almost the same in all regions. Once again there is an exceptions for Simalungun where the lines do not connect. The standard form is ᯒ, and in Simalungun it. is ᯓ.

The character ᯐ

The form /da/ is very simple: ᯑ. The form of /ja/ is exactly the same as /da/ but with an additional horizontal line: ᯐ. The upper and lower lines usually do not meet except for Karo.


Below are ten exercises. After working on the first exercise, you can advance to the next exercise using the blue arrow, or by clicking on the circle.